Fuel injectors are essential to fuel delivery system components that help send fuel evenly into engine cylinders. But how do they manage electric flow to function? Do fuel injectors have a positive and negative polarity?
Fuel injectors do not have positive/negative polarity, and they work as solenoid valves with insensitive polarity. Hence the wires have no positive/negative ends. It receives electrical pulses from the engine control module, telling it when to open and close and how to adjust the fuel delivery to each cylinder.
In this article, I’ll explain everything you need to know about fuel injectors’ polarity. But first, let’s see fuel injectors working principles.
Fuel Injectors Working Principle
There are two fuel systems types: carburetor and fuel injection systems. The fuel injectors are essential components in the injection system used to inject the right amount of air-fuel mixture into individual cylinders.
Fuel injectors work with the electric flow. The nozzle will open and spray fuel into the cylinders when it receives voltage.
But what tells the fuel injectors to work? Fuel injectors do not work with just electric flow. They receive instructions from the engine control unit (ECU) about the right amount of gas to inject into the cylinders and when to open and close.
The fuel injectors are controlled with pressure-sensitive springs. The injector needle valves spray atomized and pressurized fuel into individual cylinders. The needle valve lifts its seat while spraying fuel into the engine. Once the pressure stops, the needle returns to its seat, causing the fuel injection to stop.
Do fuel injectors have a positive and negative?
Fuel injector wiring does not depend on polarity. Hence, they do not have negative/positive polarity wires. If you’re asking, do fuel injectors have polarity? The answer is no. As long as one of the injector plugs is connected to the positive wire and the other is grounded (that is, connected to the negative wire), the magnetic coil will receive current, and the injectors will function properly.
What are the two wires on an injector?
Most fuel injectors have two terminals that the prongs insert into. These wires are a fuel injector wire and a common rail wire. Different injector wires on the same vehicle usually have different colors. But the wire with the same color across all the injectors is the common ignition wire.
One of the wires constantly has 12 volts, while the other has 0 volts. The one with 0 volts is often called the fuel injector ground wire. You should take note of this when testing the wires to avoid thinking you have electrical issues where nothing is wrong with the vehicle.
What is the polarity of fuel injectors?
As explained earlier, fuel injectors have no polarity. It is a solenoid valve not affected nor influenced by polarity.
Unlike components like light bulbs, car batteries, and other system parts with negative and positive wires, fuel injectors are electromechanical devices controlled by electrical signals instead of direct electric currents.
The fuel injectors work using electric pulses where the powertrain control module (PCM) sends a series of electric pulses, telling them the right amount of fuel to inject into the cylinders for optimal engine performance.
Are fuel injectors 12 volts?
Yes, most fuel injectors use 12 volts to energize the coil, and when energized, the voltage drops to almost zero. If it doesn’t drop, you have a problem with the wiring harness. It could be you have open coils inside the injector or a weak or open wiring harness.
However, it’s important to note that while most fuel injectors are 12 volts, certain vehicles may have different voltage requirements. And the fuel injectors do not work with the electric voltage alone.
What tells the fuel injectors to work?
As explained earlier, the fuel injectors in your car do not have polarity. It works with electrical pulses.
The fuel injectors receive electrical pulses from the powertrain control module, telling it when to open and close and the right amount of fuel to spray into the cylinders. The PCM also determines when the fuel injectors should adjust the fuel delivery.
The powertrain control module collects information such as the throttle position, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, engine speed, and oxygen sensor readings to determine the right amount of fuel for optimal combustion. Based on these readings, the PCM calculates the required fuel to send into each cylinder and tells each injector the appropriate fuel to inject into the cylinders.
Where do fuel injectors get power from?
The fuel injectors get power from the engine control module, also known as the car computer or powertrain control module. The car computer is the brain behind the fuel injectors’ operation. It uses information from different car sensors and the engine RPM to determine the electrical pulses to forward to the injectors.
But do fuel injectors affect performance, anyway? Yes, old, worn-out, or lousy fuel injectors drastically affect the engine performance. Since the engine control module uses the fuel injectors to send fuel into the engine, a lousy injector will not send the required fuel into the cylinders. This will invariably lead to bad gas mileage and poor engine performance.
Injector Circuit & Wiring Diagram (YouTube Video)
This article has answered the question, do fuel injectors have a positive and negative polarity? Fuel injectors do not have a positive/negative polarity. It works with electrical pulses from the car computer, telling them the right amount of fuel to inject into each cylinder and when to adjust the input.
I have also answered other questions like does fuel injectors affect engine performance, what are the two wires in a fuel injector, and explained fuel injector working principles. It is a guide to learning everything about the fuel injectors in your car.