If you’re an automobile enthusiast or you own an engine-run vehicle, you may search for an engine parts list to remember engine parts’ name and their tasks. Memorizing every name is a bit tough, but if you read those with their tasks and mechanism, you can remember them easily.
We’re going to help you out with this problem. In this article, we’re going to share all engine parts’ names with a short description of their tasks.
So, let’s begin here! This article is a bit lengthy. So, we suggest you jump at the exact paragraph using the table of content if you’re in a hurry.
What is an automobile engine?
The engine is almost like the heart of the vehicle, and it makes the vehicle run. You can’t imagine a vehicle without an engine. According to the proper definition, “The engine is a device that converts the chemical energy into mechanical energy and helps a vehicle to run with this energy.” If you think of a human body without a properly balanced heart in it, is it possible to operate for it? The answer is no!
The same thing happens for automobiles. A vehicle can’t operate when it doesn’t have an engine. Different vehicles have different types of engines like a car engine, bus engine, truck engine, bike engine, etc. Let’s discuss the car engine types.
Different types of engine
According to a lot of facts, there are a lot of types of engines. There are two types of engines. One is the internal combustion engine, and the other one is the external combustion engine. Let’s discuss these two types first.
1. Internal Combustion Engine (I.C. Engine)
The combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine of this type. The fuel burns inside the cylinder, and it generates high pressure and temperature. This pressure helps to move the piston as well as the wheels. In this type of engine, we can only use high volatile fuel such as diesel or petrol, or we can use gas here.
Facilities of I. C. Engine
- High efficiency than E. C. Engine
- Compact body and needs little space
- Costs lower than E. C. engines
- Easily starts even in cold weather
2. External Combustion Engine (E.C. Engine)
In an External Combustion Engine, the combustion of fuel happens at the outside of the cylinder. This type of engine generates high heat, and this heat converts low boiling temperature fluid like water into steam. This high-pressure steam rotates the turbine and makes the vehicle move. The main energy sources of this type of engine are gas or solid energy source. Mainly this type of engine is used in ships.
Facilities of E. C. Engine
- Starting torque is high
- Cheaper fuels can be used here
- More flexibility
Different types of I. C. Engine
The Internal Combustion engine is widely used in the automotive industry. Everywhere we can see this type of engine, and that’s why this one is also known as an automobile engine. The automobile engine can be classified into different orders. Let’s discuss some of those important.
According to the number of Strokes, there are two types of engines. Those are,
We can notice this type of engine in pumping sets or scooters. In this type of engine, the piston moves inside the cylinder one time down and up. This type of engine has higher torque than a four-stroke engine.
This type of engine is used in trucks, cars, and bikes. In this type of engine, the piston moves inside the cylinder two times up and down during a single time fuel burn.
According to the Design of Engine, there are two types of engines. Those are,
Reciprocating engine/ Piston engine
In this type of engine, the pressure generated by fuel combustion goes to the piston, and it helps to move the vehicle wheel.
Rotary engine/ Wankle engine
This type of engine was developed in 1957 by Wankle. In this type, the pressure from the burning of the fuel goes to the rotor and makes the vehicle run.
According to energy sources, there are four types of engines normally. Those are,
Diesel run engine
These types of engines use diesel as the main source of energy. Diesel run engine is used in trucks, buses, and some types of cars too.
Petrol run engine
This type of engine uses petrol as the main source of energy. These are used in sports cars, bikes, luxury cars, etc.
Gas run engine
This type of engine uses LPG or CNG as the main source of energy. These are used in light vehicles.
Electricity run engine
This type of engine doesn’t burn any fuel. This is called an eco-friendly engine as they use electricity as the main source of energy and don’t harm the environment at all.
According to the Ignition Method, there are two types of engines. Those are,
Spark Ignition Engine (S. I. Engine)
In this type of engine, fuel ignition starts with a spark, and the spark is generated inside the cylinder with the help of a spark plug.
Compression-Ignition Engine (C. E. Engine)
This type of engine doesn’t use the spark plug to ignite the fuel. During the compression of air, the temperature rises, and the burning of fuel starts in this type of engine.
According to the number of cylinders, there are two types of engines. Those are,
In this type, the engine has only one piston and one cylinder connected to the crankshaft.
There is more than one cylinder in this type of engine, and those remain connected to the crankshaft.
According to cylinder alignment, there are 6 types of engines. Those are,
In this type, cylinders are aligned in a straight line one after another.
V align engine
An engine that contains one crankshaft and two-cylinder banks inclined at an angle less than 180 degrees are called a V-aligned engine.
Opposed cylinder engine
In this type, there are two cylinder banks that remain opposite to each other on one crankshaft.
W align engine
This type of engine is almost the same as the V engine. The difference is, it has 3 cylinder banks.
Opposite piston engine
An engine that contains two pistons with cylinders and the combustion chamber located between the center of the pistons is called the Opposite piston engine.
In this type, there is a central crankshaft, and the pistons are positioned in a circular manner, being connected to the crankshaft.
According to the air intake process, we can classify the engine into 3 different types. Let’s discuss those step by step.
Naturally aspirated engine
The air intake process takes place with the help of atmospheric pressure in this type of engine.
Supercharged engine type
Air intake pressure is increased by the compressor in this type of engine.
Turbocharged engine type
Air intake pressure is increased by the turbine compressor in this type of engine.
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Now, let’s discuss some of the important engine parts with a short description of those.
- Engine Cylinder Block
- Cylinder Head
- Cylinder Head Gasket
- Cylinder Head Cover
- Cylinder Head Cover Gasket
- Crank Shaft
- Piston Ring
- Connecting Rod
- Main Bearing
- Began Bearing
- Engine Valve
- Valve Guide
- Valve Guide Seal
- Timing Chain
- Oil Pump
- Oil Sump
- Engine Oil filter
- Turbo Intercooler
- Exhaust Manifold
- Inlet Manifold
- Throttle Body
- Radiator Fan
- Water Pump
- Different types of sensors
- Spark Plug
- Fuel Injection Pump
- Timing Belt
- Timing Oil Seal
- Engine Main Oil Seal
- Ignition Coil
- High Tension Lead
01. Engine Cylinder Block
The engine block is a thing that keeps the cylinder at their places perfectly. Normally an internal combustion engine comes up with a cylinder and a piston inside. But, the power generated from only one cylinder is not often enough, and to make the engine balanced and power smooth and powerful, manufacturers go for multiple cylinders that are arranged in a line or row gradually.
These cylinders are arranged with an engine cylinder block. More precisely, you can say the engine cylinder block is nothing but a structure that keeps the cylinders arranged.
There are a few types of engine blocks, such as V Engine block, Inline engine block, etc. The engine block weight depends on the number of cylinders it is holding, and it varies from model to model. Normally an engine block for 4 engine cylinder weighs nearly 300 lbs.
02. Cylinder Head
When we’re discussing cylinder head, you may ask what a cylinder head is? And the answer is, the cylinder head is almost like housing for cylinder head parts like springs, lifter, combustion chamber, and cylinder head valves.
This one is located at the top of the engine cylinder block. The cylinder head contains some passages which allow the fuel and air to flow inside the cylinder, and those passages are called tracts or ports. By the by, the cylinder head also drives the coolant into the engine block. There’s a gasket in the cylinder head that prevents leaking oil or water at the combustion chamber.
There are a few types of cylinder heads. Let’s discuss those step by step.
Flathead cylinder head
This type of cylinder head was the first type of cylinder head. They just protect the cylinder block, and they don’t contain any moving parts. This type of cylinder head doesn’t allow efficient airflow and provides poor performance.
Overhead valve cylinder head
This type of cylinder head is greater than the flathead cylinder head. This type of cylinder head contains camshafts above them, and it got a valve and pushrod connected to give smooth airflow.
Overhead camshaft cylinder head
This type of cylinder head is the most advanced in its category. This can provide better airflow and great engine performance.
03. Crank Shaft
This is a part of the engine that helps to convert the piston linear motion into a rotary motion to deliver it to the wheel or the gearbox. The main crankshaft function is to transfer piston reciprocating motion to the drive shaft.
At the end of the crankshaft, there’s a flywheel connected, and this flywheel is called the energy reservoir. It receives piston energy at the time of power stroke and gives the energy back.
The camshaft is another important part of the engine. We can notice this engine part in internal combustion (I. C. Engine) engines. This one is a mechanical component of the I. C. engine. The main task of the Camshaft is to open and close the exhaust and inlet valves of the engine at the exact time it requires. Besides, the camshaft functions with the exact stroke and a specific sequence. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft.
The piston is a part of pneumatic cylinders, gas compressors, reciprocating pumps, and reciprocating engines, which help at running the vehicle.
06. Piston Ring
A piston ring can be normally seen in an I. C. engine. It’s a split ring, and it fits on a piston.
07. Engine Valve
The engine valves are located in the cylinder head. Valves play an important role in the engine. The main task of an engine valve is to let the air in and out. The air in the cylinder helps to ignite the fuel. Without fuel ignition, the piston won’t move up and down. So we can say, without proper engine valve functioning, a vehicle can’t run properly or smoothly.
Normally there are two types of engine valves. One is the intake engine valve, and the other one is the exhaust valve.
08. Timing Chain
The main function of the timing chain is to keep the movement of components parallel to an engine. In the top section of the engine, the camshaft is attached to the timing chain. The timing chain contains a lot of lobes all over its length. When the camshaft spins, valves get opened and closed with the help of those lobes and let air and fuel into the combustion chamber at the exact time.
09. Oil Pump
An oil pump is too much an important component of the vehicle whether you talk about the car or heavy vehicles. We notice it in an internal combustion engine. In an I. C. Engine, the oil pump circulates oil to the camshaft, sliding pistons, and the rotating bearings while keeping the oil under pressure.
This lubricates the bearings also and gives access to use bearings of higher capacity. By the by, this helps in cooling the engine too!
10. Oil Sump
The oil sump is located at the bottom of the piston. More precisely, you can say below the crankshaft. The main task of the oil sump is to collect lubricants from the bottom.
Piston-cylinder walls require continuous lubrication to keep great maintenance. Some oil gets evaporated as the oil has access to run around these cylinder walls freely.
11. Engine Oil filter
An oil filter is a different type of filter. This one is specially designed to remove junks or contaminates from hydraulic oil, transmission oil, and engine oil. The oil filter is mainly used in hydraulic machinery.
There are different types of oil filters that can be used to filter contaminates. Besides, the filter varies from vehicle to vehicle and their model to model.
12. Engine Head Cover
The engine headcover is another important part of the vehicle. It mainly closes the top of the cylinder and forms the combustion chamber. In most of the engines, the engine head gives some passage or space for air and fuel. That’s how the fuel and air go to the cylinder. It helps the exhaust to escape too!
The turbocharger is known as the turbo. It’s a device that makes the engine’s efficiency and power output increased by putting some compressed air into the combustion chamber. The turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all the induction devices were classified as a supercharger. There’s a little difference between turbochargers and superchargers.
14. Exhaust Manifold
The exhaust manifold is a collector. In the automotive vehicle, the exhaust manifold collects exhaust gases from multiple cylinders and make them pass away through one single pipe. The word manifold’s origin is old English, and it refers to folding multiple outputs and inputs together. Exhaust manifolds are made of stainless steel or cast iron generally, and these collect exhaust gas from different cylinders and deliver it through one pipe.
15. Inlet Manifold
This one is also an important part of the vehicle. The function of the inlet manifold is the opposite of the exhaust manifold. The exhaust manifold collects exhaust gas from cylinders and blows it through the exhaust pipe. On the other hand, the inlet manifold supplies air or mixture to the cylinder. The primary function of this device is to distribute air/ fuel mixture to the intake ports evenly.
The carburetor is mainly a device seen in an internal combustion engine often. The main function of the carburetor is to mix the air and fuel in a specific ratio for an internal combustion engine. The proper air-fuel ratio is important, and carburetor plays this important role.
17. Throttle Body
A throttle body is a part of the air intake system. The main task of the throttle body is to control the amount of air going to the engine. We see throttle body in fuel injected engines only. Inside the throttle body, there is a throttle plate, and this one is the largest piece of the throttle body.
18. Radiator Fan
A motor vehicle radiator is a cooling device designed especially for the engine. This is a heat exchanger and widely used for cooling I. C. Engines. This one is a major part of the automobile, but it also being used in piston-engine aircraft, motorcycles, etc.
The Radiator is a source of heat to its environment. People call it a heat exchanger. This engine part is used to transfer thermal energy from one material to another for heating or cooling purposes.
The thermostat is a component that monitors the temperature of a physical body and controls it if required. It senses the temperature and performs basic actions so that the temperature keeps maintained and stays within the desired set point.
Sometimes, the thermostat combines its duties like sensing the temperature and controlling actions.
21. Fuel Injector
The introduction of fuel happens with the fuel injector. In an internal combustion engine, we can notice the fuel injector often. All types of diesel engines use fuel injection by their original design. Fuel injectors replaced the carburetor on the petrol run engine in the 1980 s.
22. Different types of sensors
In an automotive engine, we can notice a lot of sensors. Different sensors play a different role and tasks. Below are some of the most important sensors used in an automotive engine.
- Manifold absolute pressure sensor, MAP sensor
- Barometric pressure sensor
- Oxygen sensor
- Coolant temperature sensor
- Crank position sensor
- Engine speed sensor
23. Spark Plug
The spark plug is a device that delivers spark to ignite the compressed air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. The vehicle mainly starts with the help of it. Without the spark at the exact time, the vehicle can’t start smoothly.
The flywheel in the engine is a mechanical device that is specially designed to store rotational energy. The energy transferred here by applying torque to the flywheel.
25. Turbo Intercooler
The turbo intercooler is an air cooling intake device. This one plays a significant role in the automobile engine. This one is a widely used supercharged and turbocharged engine. The main task of the turbo intercooler is to cool down the compressed air with the turbo or supercharger.
26. Fuel Injection Pump
Normally we see a fuel injection pump in a C. I. engine. The vehicle that runs with diesel uses this device. The fuel injection pump pushes diesel into the cylinders of a diesel-run engine.
So, this is our engine parts list, their names, and a brief description of them. If you own a car or you’re an automotive enthusiast, and you’re searching for the list, you can find it here. This list can help non-tech people too.
If you’ve any questions left in your mind or you got any suggestions for us, feel free to leave a comment here or contact us directly. To read more articles like this one, visit our website.